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Table 3 Comparison of serum marker levels between the studied groups

From: Identification of serum biomarker panel to differentiate malignant from benign thyroid nodules using multiplex bead assay

  Control (n = 20) BTN (n = 20) MTN (n = 20) H p
IL-8 (pg/ml)
 Min.–Max. 3.16–55.0 3.53–16.70 6.72–2059.3 16.364 <0.001*
 Median 9.01 8.75 29.69
p1 = 0.619, p2 = 0.001*, p3 < 0.001*, p4 < 0.001*  
EGF (pg/ml)
 Min.–Max. 1.24–362.7 1.35–498.9 2.14–845.6 13.975 0.001*
 Median 12.64 6.72 128.7
p1 = 0.356, p2 = 0.007*, p3 < 0.001*, p4 < 0.01*  
HGF (pg/ml)
 Min.–Max. 19.36–385.2 32.40–304.0 64.95–434.8 12.931 0.002*
 Median 98.05 112.20 173.2
p1 = 0.337, p2 < 0.001*, p3 = 0.012*, p4 = 0.024*  
MIG (pg/ml)
 Min.–Max. 99.80–980.0 286.0–1003.0 287.0–6509.0 11.090 0.004*
 Median 340.4 438.0 776.7
p1 = 0.322, p2 = 0.001*, p3 = 0.023*, p4 = 0.038*  
Ang-1 (pg/ml)
 Min.–Max. 1788–165431 1788.0–196895 11559–298458 6.060 0.049*
 Median 81248.0 33327.5 95016.0
p1 = 0.248, p2 = 0.192, p3 = 0.014*  
IL-5 (pg/ml)
 Min.–Max. 0.30–1.30 0.07–1.95 0.14–13.51 4.558 0.102
 Median 0.68 0.68 1.24   
Gal-3 (pg/ml)
 Min.–Max. 4192.0–19988.0 4263.0 16167.0 3759.0–17680.0 0.545 0.761
 Median 8146.0 8362.0 8836.0
VDBP (ng/ml)
 Min.–Max. 4854.0–49331.0 16826 73693 19770 69758 0.903 0.637
 Median 30334.5 32496.5 29355.5
  1. IL interleukin, EGF epidermal growth factor, HGF hepatocyte growth factor, MIG monokine induced by interferon gamma, Ang-1 angiopoietin-1, Gal-3 galectin-3, VDBP vitamin D-binding protein, BTN benign thyroid nodule, MTN malignant thyroid nodule
  2. H, p: H and p values for Kruskal-Wallis test, significance between groups (Sig. bet. gps) was done using post hoc test (Dunn’s multiple comparisons test)
  3. p1: p value for comparing between control and BTN
  4. p2: p value for comparing between control and MTN
  5. p3: p value for comparing between BTN and MTN
  6. p4: p value for comparing between BTN and MTN using multivariate analysis
  7. *: Statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05